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Vascular Studies 



The aorta (/eɪˈɔːrtə/ ay-OR-tə) is the main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries). The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation.

In anatomical sources, the aorta is usually divided into sections.

One way of classifying a part of the aorta is by anatomical compartment, where the thoracic aorta (or thoracic portion of the aorta) runs from the heart to the diaphragm. The aorta then continues downward as the abdominal aorta (or abdominal portion of the aorta) from the diaphragm to the aortic bifurcation.

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Carotid Duplex


Carotid ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate structural details of the carotid arteries. Carotid ultrasound is used to diagnose carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and can assess atherosclerotic plaque morphology and characteristics.Carotid duplex and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are two of the most common imaging techniques used to evaluate carotid artery disease.

Duplex ultrasound (duplex) combines standard B-mode ultrasound and Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate both structural details of the carotid arteries and blood flow through the arteries. During carotid duplex evaluation, the 2D B-mode structural image is superimposed with the doppler flow data, which provides a more realistic anatomical assessment.

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Arterial Upper/Lower Extremities

In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle. They receive blood from the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax. On the left side of the body, the subclavian comes directly off the aortic arch, while on the right side it arises from the relatively short brachiocephalic artery when it bifurcates into the subclavian and the right common carotid artery.

The first part of the right subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic trunk, behind the upper part of the right sternoclavicular articulation. It passes upward and lateralward to the medial margin of the scalenus anterior muscle. It ascends a little above the medial part of the clavicle.

It is covered, in front, by the integument, superficial fascia, the platysma muscle, deep fascia, the clavicular origin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the sternohyoid muscle, and the sternothyroid muscle, and another layer of the deep fascia. It is crossed by the internal jugular vein and the vertebral vein, by the vagus nerve and the cardiac branches of the vagus and sympathetic, and by the subclavian loop of the sympathetic trunk which forms a ring around the vessel. The anterior jugular vein is directed laterally in front of the artery, but is separated from it by the sternohyoid muscle and the sternothyroid muscle. Below and behind the artery is the pleura, which separates it from the apex of the lung. Behind the artery is the sympathetic trunk, the longus colli muscle and the first thoracic vertebra (T1). The right recurrent laryngeal nerve winds around the lower and back part of the vessel.

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Venous Upper/Lower Extremities

A deep vein is a vein that is deep in the body. This contrasts with superficial veins that are close to the body's surface.

Deep veins are almost always beside an artery with the same name (e.g. the femoral vein is beside the femoral artery). Collectively, they carry the vast majority of the blood. Occlusion of a deep vein can be life-threatening and is most often caused by thrombosis. Occlusion of a deep vein by thrombosis is called deep vein thrombosis.

Because of their location deep within the body, operation on these veins can be difficult.

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Renal Artery

The renal arteries are paired arteries that supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle.

The renal arteries carry a large portion of total blood flow to the kidneys. Up to a third of total cardiac output can pass through the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys.

The renal arteries normally arise at a 90° angle off of the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery. They have a radius of approximately 0.25 cm, 0.26 cm at the root. The measured mean diameter can differ depending on the imaging method used. For example, the diameter was found to be 5.04 ± 0.74 mm using ultrasound but 5.68 ± 1.19 mm using angiography.

Due to the anatomical position of the aorta, the inferior vena cava, and the kidneys, the right renal artery is normally longer than the left renal artery.

  • The right passes behind the inferior vena cava, the right renal vein, the head of the pancreas, and the descending part of the duodenum. It’s somewhat lower than the left one.

  • Left artery lies behind the left renal vein, the body of the pancreas and the splenic vein, and is crossed by the inferior mesenteric vein.

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